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Being a Linux Enthusiast and a Fan of Open Source Software, I created Ahmer’s SysAdmin Recipes blog to share my experiences with other System Administrators. The curiosity doesn’t let me stop; therefore, I am constantly trying to learn new software tools and techniques. Whereas I also have the passion and the patience to teach the others.

I am always ready to accept new challenges and wish to explore the areas, that I haven’t worked on. Please give me your feedback and help me improve this blog.

Sunday, 16 June 2019

Install Vagrant with VirtualBox on CentOS 7

Install Vagrant with VirtualBox on CentOS 7Vagrant is an open-source software for easy provisioning of virtual software development environments. The virtual environments called Vagrant boxes are portable in nature and can be used over many platforms without any change. Vagrant is developed by HashiCorp and distributed under MIT License. Vagrant leverages a declarative configuration file which describes all your software requirements, packages, operating system configuration, users, and more.

In this article, we will install Vagrant with VirtualBox on CentOS 7 server. At first, we will install VirtualBox as the provider for Vagrant software, then we will install Vagrant on CentOS 7.

 

Vagrant Features:

  • Create complex virtual development environments in a single workflow.
  • Portal development environments, that can be moved to other machines conveniently.
  • Starts a desired development environment with just a single command.
  • A same vagrantfile can be used by all developers to provision their own development environments.
  • Users can create their own custom Vagrant Box or select from the globally available Vagrant boxes of popular software.
  • Easy and Fast.

 

Vagrant Architecture:

Vagrant uses Provisioners and Providers as building blocks to create and manage the development environments.

  • Provisioners are tools to customize the virtual environments e.g. Puppet, Chef, Ansible, etc.
  • Providers are the services that Vagrant uses to setup and create virtual environments e.g. VirtualBox, Docker, Hyper-V, etc.

Vagrant creates a layer on top of the virtualization software and allow the users to manager development environments with just a single vagrant command. Machine and software requirements are defined in vagrantfile, to execute necessary steps to create a development-ready box.

Box is a format and an extension (.box) for Vagrant environments, and it is portable across various platforms.

 

Vagrant System Requirements:

Vagrant has no special hardware and software requirements except that it requires a Provider to create development environments.

 

Environment Specification:

We have provisioned a CentOS 7 based system with following specifications:

Hostname: vagrant-01.example.com
IP Address: 192.168.116.176 /24
Operating System: CentOS 7.6
CPU: 3.4 Ghz (2 Core)
Memory: 2 GB
Storage: 20 GB

 

Installing VirtualBox on CentOS 7:

Connect with vagrant-01.example.com using ssh as root user.

Install prerequisite software packages using yum command.

[root@vagrant-01 ~]# yum install -y kernel-devel-$(uname -r) kernel-headers gcc make perl wget ... Installed: gcc.x86_64 0:4.8.5-36.el7_6.2 kernel-devel.x86_64 0:3.10.0-957.el7 kernel-headers.x86_64 0:3.10.0-957.21.2.el7 perl.x86_64 4:5.16.3-294.el7_6 wget.x86_64 0:1.14-18.el7_6.1 Dependency Installed: cpp.x86_64 0:4.8.5-36.el7_6.2 glibc-devel.x86_64 0:2.17-260.el7_6.5 glibc-headers.x86_64 0:2.17-260.el7_6.5 libmpc.x86_64 0:1.0.1-3.el7 mpfr.x86_64 0:3.1.1-4.el7 perl-Carp.noarch 0:1.26-244.el7 perl-Encode.x86_64 0:2.51-7.el7 perl-Exporter.noarch 0:5.68-3.el7 perl-File-Path.noarch 0:2.09-2.el7 perl-File-Temp.noarch 0:0.23.01-3.el7 perl-Filter.x86_64 0:1.49-3.el7 perl-Getopt-Long.noarch 0:2.40-3.el7 perl-HTTP-Tiny.noarch 0:0.033-3.el7 perl-PathTools.x86_64 0:3.40-5.el7 perl-Pod-Escapes.noarch 1:1.04-294.el7_6 perl-Pod-Perldoc.noarch 0:3.20-4.el7 perl-Pod-Simple.noarch 1:3.28-4.el7 perl-Pod-Usage.noarch 0:1.63-3.el7 perl-Scalar-List-Utils.x86_64 0:1.27-248.el7 perl-Socket.x86_64 0:2.010-4.el7 perl-Storable.x86_64 0:2.45-3.el7 perl-Text-ParseWords.noarch 0:3.29-4.el7 perl-Time-HiRes.x86_64 4:1.9725-3.el7 perl-Time-Local.noarch 0:1.2300-2.el7 perl-constant.noarch 0:1.27-2.el7 perl-libs.x86_64 4:5.16.3-294.el7_6 perl-macros.x86_64 4:5.16.3-294.el7_6 perl-parent.noarch 1:0.225-244.el7 perl-podlators.noarch 0:2.5.1-3.el7 perl-threads.x86_64 0:1.87-4.el7 perl-threads-shared.x86_64 0:1.43-6.el7 Dependency Updated: glibc.x86_64 0:2.17-260.el7_6.5 glibc-common.x86_64 0:2.17-260.el7_6.5 libgcc.x86_64 0:4.8.5-36.el7_6.2 libgomp.x86_64 0:4.8.5-36.el7_6.2 Complete!

We have used $(uname -r) with above yum command. It demands a little clarification.

The vboxdrv.service requires same kernel-devel modules as of running Kernel. Otherwise, after installation vboxdrv.service will give you following errors.

[root@vagrant-01 ~]# tail /var/log/messages Jun 16 11:22:05 vagrant-01 vboxdrv.sh: Building VirtualBox kernel modules. Jun 16 11:22:06 vagrant-01 vboxdrv.sh: This system is currently not set up to build kernel modules. Jun 16 11:22:06 vagrant-01 vboxdrv.sh: Please install the Linux kernel "header" files matching the current kernel Jun 16 11:22:06 vagrant-01 vboxdrv.sh: for adding new hardware support to the system. Jun 16 11:22:06 vagrant-01 vboxdrv.sh: The distribution packages containing the headers are probably: Jun 16 11:22:06 vagrant-01 vboxdrv.sh: kernel-devel kernel-devel-3.10.0-957.el7.x86_64 Jun 16 11:22:06 vagrant-01 systemd: vboxdrv.service: control process exited, code=exited status=1 Jun 16 11:22:06 vagrant-01 systemd: Failed to start VirtualBox Linux kernel module. Jun 16 11:22:06 vagrant-01 systemd: Unit vboxdrv.service entered failed state. Jun 16 11:22:06 vagrant-01 systemd: vboxdrv.service failed.

Therefore, we have used $(uname -r) command to suffix the Kernel version with the yum command for the desired result.

VirtualBox is a free and open-source Hypervisor, developed by Oracle Corporation.

VirtualBox's yum repository configurations are available at VirtualBox Official Download Page.

Therefore, we will first add VirtualBox’s yum repository in our CentOS 7 server and then we will install VirtualBox using yum command.

First of all, we have to import Oracle public key in our CentOS 7 server.

Download Oracle public key as follows.

[root@vagrant-01 ~]# cd /tmp [root@vagrant-01 tmp]# wget https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox.asc --2019-06-16 10:29:47-- https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox.asc Resolving www.virtualbox.org (www.virtualbox.org)... 137.254.60.32 Connecting to www.virtualbox.org (www.virtualbox.org)|137.254.60.32|:443... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 1734 (1.7K) [text/plain] Saving to: âoracle_vbox.ascâ 100%[======================================>] 1,734 6.44KB/s in 0.3s 2019-06-16 10:29:51 (6.44 KB/s) - âoracle_vbox.ascâ saved [1734/1734]

Import Oracle public key in our CentOS 7 server.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# rpm --import oracle_vbox.asc

Download and add VirtualBox yum repository in our CentOS 7 server.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# wget https://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/rpm/el/virtualbox.repo -O /etc/yum.repos.d/virtualbox.repo --2019-06-16 10:32:01-- https://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/rpm/el/virtualbox.repo Resolving download.virtualbox.org (download.virtualbox.org)... 23.46.86.216 Connecting to download.virtualbox.org (download.virtualbox.org)|23.46.86.216|:443... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 259 [text/plain] Saving to: â/etc/yum.repos.d/virtualbox.repoâ 100%[======================================>] 259 --.-K/s in 0s 2019-06-16 10:32:04 (1.02 MB/s) - â/etc/yum.repos.d/virtualbox.repoâ saved [259/259]

Build yum cache for newly added repositories.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# yum makecache fast Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirrors.ges.net.pk * extras: mirrors.ges.net.pk * updates: mirrors.ges.net.pk http://repos.del.extreme-ix.org/centos/7.6.1810/os/x86_64/repodata/repomd.xml: [Errno 14] curl#7 - "Failed connect to repos.del.extreme-ix.org:80; Connection refused" Trying other mirror. base | 3.6 kB 00:00 extras | 3.4 kB 00:00 updates | 3.4 kB 00:00 virtualbox/7/x86_64/signature | 181 B 00:00 Retrieving key from https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox.asc Importing GPG key 0x98AB5139: Userid : "Oracle Corporation (VirtualBox archive signing key) <info@virtualbox.org>" Fingerprint: 7b0f ab3a 13b9 0743 5925 d9c9 5442 2a4b 98ab 5139 From : https://www.virtualbox.org/download/oracle_vbox.asc Is this ok [y/N]: y virtualbox/7/x86_64/signature | 2.9 kB 00:04 !!! virtualbox/7/x86_64/primary_db | 130 kB 00:00 Metadata Cache Created

Install VirtualBox on CentOS 7 using yum command.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# yum install -y VirtualBox-6.0 ... Installed: VirtualBox-6.0.x86_64 0:6.0.8_130520_el7-1 Dependency Installed: SDL.x86_64 0:1.2.15-14.el7 dejavu-fonts-common.noarch 0:2.33-6.el7 dejavu-sans-fonts.noarch 0:2.33-6.el7 fontconfig.x86_64 0:2.13.0-4.3.el7 fontpackages-filesystem.noarch 0:1.44-8.el7 libICE.x86_64 0:1.0.9-9.el7 libSM.x86_64 0:1.2.2-2.el7 libX11.x86_64 0:1.6.5-2.el7 libX11-common.noarch 0:1.6.5-2.el7 libXau.x86_64 0:1.0.8-2.1.el7 libXcursor.x86_64 0:1.1.15-1.el7 libXdamage.x86_64 0:1.1.4-4.1.el7 libXext.x86_64 0:1.3.3-3.el7 libXfixes.x86_64 0:5.0.3-1.el7 libXmu.x86_64 0:1.1.2-2.el7 libXrender.x86_64 0:0.9.10-1.el7 libXt.x86_64 0:1.1.5-3.el7 libXxf86vm.x86_64 0:1.1.4-1.el7 libglvnd.x86_64 1:1.0.1-0.8.git5baa1e5.el7 libglvnd-glx.x86_64 1:1.0.1-0.8.git5baa1e5.el7 libvpx.x86_64 0:1.3.0-5.el7_0 libxcb.x86_64 0:1.13-1.el7 libxshmfence.x86_64 0:1.2-1.el7 mesa-libGL.x86_64 0:18.0.5-4.el7_6 mesa-libglapi.x86_64 0:18.0.5-4.el7_6 opus.x86_64 0:1.0.2-6.el7 Complete!

vboxdrv.service is automatically enabled and started by VirtualBox installation process.

Check status of vboxdrv.service.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# systemctl status vboxdrv.service â vboxdrv.service - VirtualBox Linux kernel module Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/virtualbox/vboxdrv.sh; enabled; vendor preset: disabled) Active: active (exited) since Sun 2019-06-16 11:28:47 PKT; 10min ago Process: 39778 ExecStart=/usr/lib/virtualbox/vboxdrv.sh start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Jun 16 11:27:27 vagrant-01.example.com systemd[1]: Starting VirtualBox Linux ... Jun 16 11:27:27 vagrant-01.example.com vboxdrv.sh[39778]: vboxdrv.sh: Startin... Jun 16 11:27:27 vagrant-01.example.com vboxdrv.sh[39778]: vboxdrv.sh: Buildin... Jun 16 11:28:47 vagrant-01.example.com systemd[1]: Started VirtualBox Linux k... Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.

 

Install VirtualBox Extension Pack on CentOS 7:

VirtualBox is split into two components.

  • Base Package
  • Extension Packs

We have already installed VirtualBox Base Package above. Now, we are installing VirtualBox Extension Pack to extend the functionality of VirtualBox software.

VirtualBox Extension Pack is available at VirtualBox Official Download Page.

There is a single universal package of VirtualBox Extension Pack available that supports all platforms.

Therefore, we are downloading it using wget command.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# wget https://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/6.0.8/Oracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-6.0.8.vbox-extpack --2019-06-16 11:53:23-- https://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/6.0.8/Oracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-6.0.8.vbox-extpack Resolving download.virtualbox.org (download.virtualbox.org)... 23.213.142.80 Connecting to download.virtualbox.org (download.virtualbox.org)|23.213.142.80|:443... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 23309069 (22M) [text/plain] Saving to: âOracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-6.0.8.vbox-extpackâ 100%[======================================>] 23,309,069 595KB/s in 40s 2019-06-16 11:54:06 (570 KB/s) - âOracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-6.0.8.vbox-extpackâ saved [23309069/23309069]

Install VirtualBox Extension Pack using VBoxManage command.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# VBoxManage extpack install Oracle_VM_VirtualBox_Extension_Pack-6.0.8.vbox-extpack VirtualBox Extension Pack Personal Use and Evaluation License (PUEL) License version 10, 20 July 2017 ... ... ... Do you agree to these license terms and conditions (y/n)? y License accepted. For batch installation add --accept-license=56be48f923303c8cababb0bb4c478284b688ed23f16d775d729b89a2e8e5f9eb to the VBoxManage command line. 0%...10%...20%...30%...40%...50%...60%...70%...80%...90%...100% Successfully installed "Oracle VM VirtualBox Extension Pack".

VirtualBox 6.0 and VirtualBox Extension Pack have been successfully installed on CentOS 7 server.

 

Installing Vagrant on CentOS 7:

Installing prerequisite packages for Vagrant using yum command.

[root@vagrant-01 centos7]# yum install -y rsync Loaded plugins: fastestmirror Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * base: mirrors.ges.net.pk * extras: mirrors.ges.net.pk * updates: mirrors.ges.net.pk Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package rsync.x86_64 0:3.1.2-6.el7_6.1 will be installed --> Finished Dependency Resolution Dependencies Resolved ================================================================================ Package Arch Version Repository Size ================================================================================ Installing: rsync x86_64 3.1.2-6.el7_6.1 updates 404 k Transaction Summary ================================================================================ Install 1 Package Total download size: 404 k Installed size: 815 k Downloading packages: rsync-3.1.2-6.el7_6.1.x86_64.rpm | 404 kB 00:00 Running transaction check Running transaction test Transaction test succeeded Running transaction Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum. Installing : rsync-3.1.2-6.el7_6.1.x86_64 1/1 Verifying : rsync-3.1.2-6.el7_6.1.x86_64 1/1 Installed: rsync.x86_64 0:3.1.2-6.el7_6.1 Complete!

Latest version of Vagrant is available on Vagrant Official Download Page.

Download Vagrant RPM using wget command.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# wget https://releases.hashicorp.com/vagrant/2.2.4/vagrant_2.2.4_x86_64.rpm --2019-06-16 12:05:28-- https://releases.hashicorp.com/vagrant/2.2.4/vagrant_2.2.4_x86_64.rpm Resolving releases.hashicorp.com (releases.hashicorp.com)... 151.101.9.183, 2a04:4e42:2::439 Connecting to releases.hashicorp.com (releases.hashicorp.com)|151.101.9.183|:443... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: 40824607 (39M) [application/x-redhat-package-manager] Saving to: âvagrant_2.2.4_x86_64.rpmâ 100%[======================================>] 40,824,607 566KB/s in 73s 2019-06-16 12:06:41 (549 KB/s) - âvagrant_2.2.4_x86_64.rpmâ saved [40824607/40824607]

Install Vagrant RPM using rpm command.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# rpm -ivh vagrant_2.2.4_x86_64.rpm Preparing... ################################# [100%] Updating / installing... 1:vagrant-1:2.2.4-1 ################################# [100%]

Create a home directory to store Vagrant projects.

[root@vagrant-01 tmp]# mkdir ~/vagrant-home [root@vagrant-01 tmp]# cd ~/vagrant-home/

Create a new project directory and create a vagrantfile therein for Alpine Linux.

[root@vagrant-01 vagrant-home]# mkdir alpine [root@vagrant-01 vagrant-home]# cd alpine [root@vagrant-01 alpine]# vagrant init generic/alpine38 A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on `vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.

We have initialized a new Vagrant project with generic/alpine38 vagrant box.

You can find a Vagrant box as per your choice of operating system and application software at Discover Vagrant Boxes.

Start the Vagrant Project using vagrant command.

[root@vagrant-01 alpine]# vagrant up Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider... ==> default: Box 'generic/alpine38' could not be found. Attempting to find and install... default: Box Provider: virtualbox default: Box Version: >= 0 ==> default: Loading metadata for box 'generic/alpine38' default: URL: https://vagrantcloud.com/generic/alpine38 ==> default: Adding box 'generic/alpine38' (v1.9.14) for provider: virtualbox default: Downloading: https://vagrantcloud.com/generic/boxes/alpine38/versions/1.9.14/providers/virtualbox.box default: Download redirected to host: vagrantcloud-files-production.s3.amazonaws.com ==> default: Successfully added box 'generic/alpine38' (v1.9.14) for 'virtualbox'! ==> default: Importing base box 'generic/alpine38'... ==> default: Matching MAC address for NAT networking... ==> default: Checking if box 'generic/alpine38' version '1.9.14' is up to date... ==> default: Setting the name of the VM: alpine_default_1560671657772_73973 ==> default: Fixed port collision for 22 => 2222. Now on port 2200. ==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces... ==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration... default: Adapter 1: nat ==> default: Forwarding ports... default: 22 (guest) => 2200 (host) (adapter 1) ==> default: Running 'pre-boot' VM customizations... ==> default: Booting VM...

We have successfully installed Vagrant with VirtualBox on CentOS 7. Before using Vagrant, we recommend that you should read Vagrant: Up and Running by O'Reilly Media to have a thorough understanding of Vagrant concepts and command usage.

Install Vagrant with VirtualBox on CentOS 7


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